HINDU MARRIAGE (VIVAAH)  

EIGHT FORM OF MERIAGE SYSTEMS

HINDU MARRIAGE (VIVAAH) EIGHT FORM OF MERIAGE SYSTEMS.

The following types and forms of Hindu marriage (Vivaah) are mentioned

1.       Brahma Marriage

2.       Daiva Marriage

3.       Arsha Marriage

4.       Prajapatya Marriage

5.       Asura Marriage

6.       Gandharva Marriage

7.       Rakshasa Marriage, and

8.       Paisacha Marriage.

The Smritis including the Manu Smriti have brought together these eight forms of marriage into two main groups, namely,( http://www.intimatematrimony.com/)

1.       Prashasta or Approved or Desirable marriages and

2.       Aprashasta or Disapproved or Undesirable marriages.

A. “Prashasta” Form of Hindu Marriages 

Prashasta form of hindu marriages includes the first four types, namely, Brahma, Daiva, Arsha and Prajapatya.

1. Brahma Vivah ( Marriage)

Brahma marriage is the purest form of hindu marriage. In this form of marriage the father offers his daughter to a man of good character and learning. The daughter who is decked with ornaments and richly dressed is given as a kind of gift [danam] to a man of good character [srutisilavan] and high learning. The smritis regard this as the most honorable type of marriage. This form can be traced back to the Vedic times. It is still in currency and popular in India though often disfigured with the ugly practice of dowry.

2. Daivya Vivah

In the Daiva form of marriage the father gives away his daughter as a dakshina [sacrificial fee] to a young priest who officiates the yajna which is arranged by him. This form of marriage is called daiva because the girl is gifted to a priest as sacrifice to a daiva or god. These girls are maidens who are offered as dakshina. They are called “vadhus”. Though this form of marriage was in practice during the early period, during the later days it was considered improper. Hence daiva form of marriage was considered inferior to Brahma marriage.

 3. Arsha Vivah

In this form of hindu marriage, the father gives his daughter in marriage to the bridegroom after receiving a cow and a bull or two pairs of these from the bridegroom in accordance with the requirements of dharma. But this form of marriage should not be confused with the form of the bride-price or with that of the dowry. The gift of cow and bull is to be made as a token of gratitude to the man who offers his daughter to the groom to enable him to fulfill his grihasthashrama obligations. In course of time, with the decline of rituals, this form of marriage became out of date. Manu Smriti states that “some prescribe the acceptance of one pair of cows in the arsha vivah, but it is improper. It is a sale; it matters little whether one accepts a large sum or a small one.”

4. Prajapatya Vivah

In this form of hindu marriage, the father makes a gift of the daughter by addressing the couple with the mantram “may both of you perform together your dharma.” The girl is given as a gift with a clear understanding that the couple will fulfill the religious and civic duties together. This form of marriage is inferior to the first three because the bride is not a free gift but a condition is laid on both the bride and the bridegroom.

In the four forms mentioned above, the important point to be noted is that it is the father [or a person in his place] who makes a gift [dana] of the bride to the bridegroom.

B. “Aprashasta” Form of Marriages 

Aprashasta forms of marriages include the last four forms, namely, Asura, Gandharva, Rakshasa and Paisacha. The shastrakaras have approved of Prashasta form of marriages while the Aprashasta marriages are forbidden or disapproved of.

5. Asura Vivah

Unlike the first four types of the marriage mentioned above, the Asura type of marriage is one in which the bridegroom has to give money to the father or kinsman of the bride. The main consideration of this form of marriage is money. The bride, in this form of marriage, is virtually purchased. The Smriti writers consider the asura marriage either a traditional custom or a necessary evil. According to Manu, the learned father of the girl should not accept even the least amount of price. If he accepts it, he comes to be regarded as the seller of children. In the present day Indian society the asura form of marriage mostly does not exist.

6. Gandharva Vivah

The Gandharva type of marriage is the one in which a girl selects her husband by herself. The marriage of Shakuntala and Dushyantha is a classical example of this kind of marriage. Mann gives a comprehensive definition of it in the following manner — “where the bride and the bridegroom meet each other of their own accord and the meeting is consummated in copulation born of passion, that form is called gandharva.”

It can also be considered a kind of marriage wherein the mutual love and consent of the bride and the bridegroom is the only condition required to bring about the union. Neither the father nor the kinsmen need have a hand in bringing about the marriage. This type of marriage is called gandharva, because it was in practice in the Gandharva tribe living on the slopes of the Himalayas.

During the early days it was in practice among the Kshatriyas in which the kings used to arrange swayamvaras inviting princes from different places so that their daughters may get a wide selection to choose their husbands. By swayamvara we mean the selection of the bridegroom by the bride herself. The marriage of Damayanthi with Nala, and Prithviraj Chauhan with Samyukta can be mentioned here as examples. The gandharva vivaha in its original style is not in practice today but it has assumed a new form called “love marriage.”

7. Rakshasa Vivah

The rakshasa form is described in the Hindu scriptures when girls were the forcible were forcible abducted. It is the capture of bride by force. Here the bridegroom does not take the consent of the girl but simply forces her to marry him. It is to be noted that rakshasa form of marriage disappeared in course of time. But in its place the practice of girls eloping with heroes with whom they fall in love started taking place. The examples of Rukmini and Subhadra [in the epic age] eloping with Lord Krishna and Arjuna respectively and Samyukta eloping with Prithviraj Chauhan [in the Medieval age], can be cited here.

8. Paisacha Vivah

Paisacha form of marriage is one in which the man seduces by force a girl who is sleeping or intoxicated or disordered in intellect. Dharmashastra writers like Gauthama and Vishnu define it as “co-habiting with a girl who is unconscious, sleepy or intoxicated.” This form of marriage, however, has disappeared altogether in India.

Of these eight forms of marriages, Brahma vivaha is considered to be the best form of marriage where a girl is given to a boy of merit in the same caste or in a cast of equal status. Both bride and bridegroom in this marriage are supposed to be mutually agreeable for the marriage. In the present day Hindu society also the Brahma vivaha is considered the most preferable one in which the father gifts his daughter to a suitable bridegroom through the ritual of kanyadana. (http://www.intimatematrimony.com/)

Saturday, June 21, 2014 2:27:00 AM

Thrissur Pooram - തൃശ്ശൂര്‍ പൂരം 

 

  Thrissur Pooram (Malayalamതൃശ്ശൂര്‍ പൂരം) is one of the most popular temple festivals of the South Indian state Kerala. It is held at the Vadakkunnathan Temple in Thrissur town every year on the 'Pooram' (Malayalamപൂരം, pronounced [puːɾam]) day of the Malayalam Calendar month of 'Medam'. 'Pooram' day is the day when the moon rises with the Pooram star.

 

History

Peruvanam Kuttan Marar, leader of 'Chenda' group of Paramekkavu temple
Kizhakkoottu Aniyan Marar, leader of 'Chenda' group of Thiruvambady temple

Thrissur Pooram was the brain child of Raja Rama Varma or famously known as Sakthan Thampuran, the Maharaja of Cochin (1790–1805). Before the start of Thrissur Pooram, the largest temple festival in Kerala was the one-day festival held at Aarattupuzha knows asArattupuzha Pooram. Temples in and around City of Thrissur were regular participants. One day because of incessant rains they were late for the Arattupuzha Pooram and were denied access to the Pooram procession. Felt embarrassed by the denial, the temples went to theSakthan Thampuran and told their story.

So in 1798, he unified the 10 temples situated around Vadakkunnathan Temple and organised the celebration of Thrissur Pooram as a mass festival. He invited temples with their deities to City of Thrissur to pay obeisance to Lord Vadakkunnathan, the presiding deity of theVadakkunnathan TempleSakthan Thampuran ordained these temples into two groups, Western group and Eastern group. The Western group as Thiruvambadi Sri Krishna Temple consisting of Kanimangalam, Laloor, Ayyanthole and Nethilakkavu as the main one.

The Eastern group called as Paramekkavu Bagavathi Temple, consisting in addition to Paramekkavu temple, Karamukku, Chembukavu, Choorakottukavu and Panamukkamppilly. The Pooram was to be centered around the Vadakkunnathan Temple, with all these temples sending their Poorams (the whole procession), to pay obeisance to the Shiva, the presiding deity. The Thampuran is believed to have chalked out the program and the main events of the Thrissur Pooram festival.

Participants

Principle participants are Paramekkavu Bagavathi Temple and Thiruvambadi Sri Krishna Temple.

Western Group

Eastern Group

Flag Hoisting (Kodiyettam)

The Pooram celebrations begins seven days before the main Pooram. It starts with the ceremonial flag hoisting (Kodiyettam) by various participating temples. There will be a ceremonial flag hoisting at Naduvilal and Naikkanal in Thrissur City also.[6]

Display of fireworks (First Round)

The first round of pyrotechnics, know as Sample Vedikettu, happens on the fourth day after the flag hoisting of the Pooram. It is a one hour show by presented by Thiruvambady and Paramekkavu Devawsoms. Swaraj Round is venue for this fireworks and starts at 7:15 PM in the evening. The display usually have innovative patterns and varieties of fireworks display.[7]

Display of Caparisons

The golden elephant caparison (Nettipattam), elephant accoutrements (Chamayam), ornamental fan made of peacock feathers (Aalavattom), royal fan (Venchamarom), sacred bells and decorative umbrellas are prepared new by Thiruvambady and Paramekkavu Devawsoms separately. Paramekkavu Devaswom exhibits this at the Agrasala in ThrissurCity and the Thiruvambady Devaswom will display the caparisons at the Church Mission Society High School in Thrissur City on fourth and fifth day before the Pooram.[8]

Main Pooram

The main Pooram starts on the sixth day after the flag hoisting. The first to enter the Vadakkunnathan Temple on Pooram day is Kanimangalam Sastha Temple through southern gopuram and exits through western goupuram. The next to follow is Chembukkavu Bhagavathy Temple, Panamukkumpally Sastha Temple and Paramekkavu Bagavathi Templewho enters through eastern goupuram and leaves through southern goupuram. The other Poorams of Laloor Bhagavathy Temple, Neithilakkavu Bhagavathy Temple, Choorakkottukavu Bagavathy Temple enter Vadakkunnathan Temple through western goupuram leaves through southern goupuram. The Pookkattikkara - Karamukku Baghavathy Temple enters through western goupuram and leaves through southern goupuram. The Thiruvambadi Sri Krishna Temple enters Vadakkunnathan Temple through western gopuram and leaves through southern gopuram. Later all Poorams conclude at Nilapaduthara near western goupuram of Vadakkunnathan Temple.[9]

Display of fireworks (Main Round)

The main fire works happens on the seventh day after the flag hoisting. It takes place at 3 AM in the morning at Swaraj Round in Thrissur City ending at 6 AM.

Farewell Ceremony

The seventh day of Pooram is the last day of Pooram. Upacharam Cholli Piriyal (Farewell Ceremony) is last event held at Swaraj RoundThiruvambadi Sri Krishna Temple andParamekkavu Bagavathi Temple idols were taken from the Swaraj Round to their respective temples mark the end of the Pooram celebrations. The festival will end with display of fireworks know as Pakal Vedikkettu.[10][11]

Cultural Influences

Despite being a Hindu festival, the Thrissur pooram is attended by different sections of the Kerala society.[12] Several replicas of the festival are held in places within Kerala [13] as well as outside the state.[14][15][16]

Controversies

For the fireworks ceremony, which is held as two parts - a sample one (called Sample Vedikkettu, held one day before the pooram) and the final one, chemicals are used extensively. This has caused several allegations against the organizers for violating the regulations regarding sound pollution. In the past, there were several accidents[citation needed] during the event as well during the manufacture of fireworks chemicals, which has caused in the deaths of several people.[17]

Another topic of concern is the use of elephants. Due to the competitive nature of the festival between Paramekkavu and Thiruvambadi temples, as well as the presence of cheru poorams elephants are used continuously as well as in large numbers. This has caused elephants to collapse [18] as well as to run amok. This has caused concern among the animal activists as well as the common people. Though the government has issued several guidelines regarding the parading of elephants in the festivals, there are several allegations of them being not observed strictly.

 

thrissur pooram vedikettu.

 

 

 

Saturday, April 19, 2014 12:00:00 AM

Koodalmanikyam Temple, Irinjalakuda 

 
Koodalmanikyam Temple, Irinjalakuda
Koodalmanikyam Temple had stood the test of time, for over a thousand years this sheer presence had been engraved in golden letters in the history of Kerala. The unquestionable bond between Irinjalakuda and Koodalmanikyam Temple is profound. Koodalmanikyam Temple had made its mark in the history of Kerala from the times of Chera king Stanu Ravi Varman (854 A.D). Koodalmanikyam Temple is the only temple in India that has Bharata, the younger brother of Rama as the deity. Once the temple controlled land as far as Potta near Chalakudy during times of Cheraman Perumal Bhaskara Ravi Varma. Koodalmanikyam was undeniably one of the wealthiest temples in Kerala. Later the temple was administered by Thachudaya Kaimal appointed by the Maharaja of Travancore. And the reminiscence of that proud past is still visible in and around the town. However the power of the temple declined when the Government of Kerala, took over the temple through a “special order.” 

Koodalmanikyam Temple, Irinjalakuda
Koodalmanikyam temple had also been a nurturing ground that gave birth to brilliance and excellence. The serene atmosphere of Koodalmanikyam had inspired maestros like as Unnai Warrier, the author of Nalacharitam, Padmashree Ammanoor Madhava Chakyaar, Mridanga Maestro, Sri Koramb Subhramaniyan Namboothiri, Paliyath Jayachandran and so on. Koothambalam, an ancient venue for performed arts located within the walls of the temple had always inspired art and music. The annual festival of the Temple is held for 11 days between April and May. This festival marks the end of the season for Utsavams (festivals) in Kerala and the beginning of monsoon season. The festival starts one day after the famous Thrissur Pooram and comes to an end on the next Thiruvonam day. Koodalmanikyam Temple beholds impressive aspects of ancient Kerala architecture. Engravings on the wall and paintings typical to pre-colonial era is still visible throughout the temple. Elaborate spacious courtyards and the outer quadrangle are meticulously constructed and had withstood the test of time.
 
Koodalmanikyam Temple, Irinjalakuda Utsavam
The Sanctum Sanctorum, covered with copper plates is engraved with traditional Kerala style wall art. The temple differs itself from the architectural designs of other temples in terms of its extensive layout. Well protected by the walls, the temple is situated in over nine acres of land. Four massive bodies of water are located in and around the temple. They are namely Kuttan Kulam, Kulipini Theertham, located inside the compound, Padinjare Kulam and Thekke Kulam. Its is believed that Kulipini Theertham had been sanctified by the sage Kulipini and holy water from Kulipini Theertham is used for rituals and ceremonies within the temple. Koodalmanikyam is also renowned to be the part of four temples that hold the four deities Rama, Lakshmana, Bharata and Shatrughna. 
 

What makes Koodalmanikyam Temple spectacular is that this temple is still preserved with least modernization that encroach the serenity of the institution. Located in a town that still has shades of a village, Koodalmanikyam Temple is indeed a destination to sense the heart of Kerala.

 

Thursday, April 17, 2014 6:12:00 AM

Arranged marriage 

Arranged marriage is a type of marital union where the bride and groom are selected by a third party rather than by each other.

Arranged marriage is a type of marital union where the bride and groom are selected by a third party rather than by each other.It was common worldwide until the 18th century. In modern times, arranged marriage has continued in royal, aristocratic families and ethnic minority groups in developed countries; elsewhere, arranged marriage is common in South Asia, Africa,the Middle East,Latin America, Southeast Asia and parts of East Asia.Other groups that practice this custom include the Unification Church.

Arranged marriage should not be confused with the practice of forced marriage such as vani. Arranged marriage differs from autonomous marriage - called love marriage in some parts of the world - where the individuals find and select their own spouses; arranged marriages, in contrast, are usually set up by the parents or an older family member. In some cases, arranged marriage involves a matchmaker such as priest or religious leader, matrimonial site, mutual friends or a trusted third party.

Arranged marriages vary in nature and in how much time passes between first introduction and engagement. In an "introduction only" arranged marriage, also known as quasi-arranged[11] marriages or assisted[12] marriages, the parents or guardians introduce a potential spouse. From that point on, it is up to the two individuals to develop the relationship and make a final choice. There is no set time period. This is increasingly common in Japan, parts of Latin America and Africa, South Asia and East Asia.

Monday, January 27, 2014 12:52:00 AM

Thrissur Pooram 

Thrissur Pooram ( തൃശ്ശൂര്‍ പൂരം) is one of the most popular temple festivals of the South Indian state Kerala.

Thrissur Pooram was the brain child of Raja Rama Varma or famously known as Sakthan Thampuran, the Maharaja of Cochin (1790–1805). Before the start of Thrissur Pooram, the largest temple festival in Kerala was the one-day festival held at Aarattupuzha knows as Arattupuzha Pooram. Temples in and around City of Thrissur were regular participants. One day because of incessant rains they were late for the Arattupuzha Pooram and were denied access to the Pooram procession. Felt embarrassed by the denial, the temples went to the Sakthan Thampuran and told their story.

So in 1798, he unified the 10 temples situated around Vadakkunnathan Temple and organised the celebration of Thrissur Pooram as a mass festival. He invited temples with their deities to City of Thrissur to pay obeisance to Lord Vadakkunnathan, the presiding deity of the Vadakkunnathan Temple. Sakthan Thampuran ordained these temples into two groups, Western group and Eastern group. The Western group as Thiruvambadi Sri Krishna Temple consisting of Kanimangalam, Laloor, Ayyanthole and Nethilakkavu as the main one.

The Eastern group called as Paramekkavu Bagavathi Temple, consisting in addition to Paramekkavu temple, Karamukku, Chembukavu, Choorakottukavu and Panamukkamppilly. The Pooram was to be centered around the Vadakkunnathan Temple, with all these temples sending their Poorams (the whole procession), to pay obeisance to the Shiva, the presiding deity. The Thampuran is believed to have chalked out the program and the main events of the Thrissur Pooram festival.

Monday, January 27, 2014 12:09:00 AM

The Intricacies of the Hindu Marriage System 

 

If you really come to think about it, marriage is considered to be a sacred institution throughout the world. This is a relationship that is more than just the two people who are entering into it. This is because it is a promise that they couple will take care of one another. For this reason, it is vital that you understand the intricacies of this system. It is because marriage is much more than a ritual or a celebration within a community. Are you interested to know more about the Hindu marriage system? Then continue reading this article.

The first thing that you need to be aware about the Hindu marriage system is the fact that it is elaborate and detailed. Apart from that the system might have a few similarities here and there but there are a number of characteristics that are solely related to a particular caste or community. Now, if you really come to think about it, every region has its own set of norms and social customs. Then this is further divided into a number of sub sects depending on the community that one belongs to.

In case you are wondering what the differences might be, well there are a number of them that you would be able to find out. For one, you will be able to find that a few weddings might span for 2-3 days, in the case of Brahmin marriages since there are a number of rituals that need to be performed. In contrast there are a few weddings that take an hour or so to complete. Even though the process involved in this process, might be different they sanctify the union of two people who are entering into a relationship for life.

Now, you must be wondering about the reason behind why so much emphasis is placed on this. It is because of the fact that this is an occasion to celebrate. Elders of the community and form the family gather for this particular event and give their blessings, good wishes and pass on their wisdom to the couple. In this way, the whole community celebrates as well. Therefore, it is a grand affair where family from far and wide, come home just to attend this auspicious occasion. Apart from that this is the perfect time for the community and family to gather and have an enjoyable time as well.

Even though the Hindu marriage system might come across to be a very complicated setup, it isn’t if you look at it closely. It is largely because of the fact that each community has their own customs and traditions. For this reason, it might seem to be beyond your comprehension but it isn’t something that is very difficult to comprehend. These are a few things that you need to know about this system. This means that the next time that you attend a wedding you will be in a position where you will be able to understand the nitty-gritty’s well. 

Wednesday, March 06, 2013 2:32:00 AM

intimatematrimony.com: The Perfect Match Maker  

 

It is often said that marriages are made in heaven. This saying might be true, but the fast paced world that we live in is such that we don’t get any time to slow down. For this reason, finding one’s life partner becomes a difficult process. However, we live in the age of the internet where you can reach out to most people these days. It goes without saying that this in itself would help brighten your prospects of meeting your life partner. In case, you don’t want to chat with anonymous strangers or stalk them on social networking sites, the best way would be to join a matrimonial website. But there are a number of websites that you will come across. Now, you must be wondering how you can find a reliable one, right? In that case, you should think joining a site that lives up to all that they claim. For this reason, you need to check out intimatematrimony.com.

The first question that is bound to cross your mind right now is how this website is different from other such websites right? Well, once you join this website you will be in a position where you can sign up and then you would be a step closer to finding your life partner. Yes, it is that simple. All you would have to do is to fill out your profile details, upload your latest photo and you are all ready to go. In this way, you can be certain of the fact that it would certainly help you find the right match at the same time you would not have to worry about it as well.

Another advantage that you will stand to gain if you visit and join intimatematrimony.com is the fact that you will be able to streamline your search. This would help simplify the process. In this way, you will be in a position where you would be able to get it done as well. In this way, you can find prospective matches from the same community, caste or social status. Also, this would simplify the whole process as well. For this reason, it would be an excellent call if you were to go in for this option. Additionally, you need to think about what you will stand to gain from this as well. So, you can cut-short your long search for the perfect partner by waiting for the perfect partner as you will be able to find then on intimatematrimony.com

Monday, March 04, 2013 1:51:00 AM